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Cognitive deficits are changes in thinking, like difficulty solving problems. This category also includes dementia and memory problems, as well as many kinds of communication challenges.

A stroke often alters communication, with its location influencing what will be affected. In addition to communication problems like aphasia, a condition affecting the ability to understand or process language, communication deficits may include decreased attention, distractibility and the inability to inhibit inappropriate behavior.

Problem-solving ability is sometimes affected, usually more in survivors of right-brain strokes.

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Vascular dementia is commonly associated with left-hemisphere stroke, impacts reasoning, planning, judgment, memory and other thought processes.

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Everyone experiences memory loss from time to time. Memory loss may be a direct result of stroke.

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